II. Of how many kinds of faith do the scriptures speak?

There are four kinds of faith enumerated in the Holy Scriptures, viz: historical, temporary, the faith of working miracles, and justifying or saving faith. The difference which exists between the different kinds of faith here specified, will appear by giving a proper definition of each.

Historical faith is to know and believe that every word of God is true which is divinely delivered and revealed, whether by the voice, or by oracles, or by visions, or by any other method of revelation by which the divine will is made known unto us, upon the authority and declaration of God himself. It is called historical because it is merely a knowledge of those things which God is said to have done, or now does, or will hereafter do. The Scriptures speak of this faith in these places: "If I have all faith so that I could remove mountains," which may also be understood of all the different kinds of faith, except justifying. "The devils believe and tremble." " Simon also believed," viz: that the doctrine of Peter was true, yet he had no justifying faith. (1 Cor. 13:2. James 2:19. Acts 8:13.)

Temporary faith is an assent to the doctrines of the church, accompanied with profession and joy, but not with a true and abiding joy, such as arises from a consciousness that we are the objects of the divine favor, but from some other cause, whatever it may be, so that it endures only for a time, and in seasons of affliction dies away. Or, it is to assent to the doctrine delivered by the prophets and apostles, to profess it, to glory in it, and to rejoice for a time in the knowledge of it; but not on account of an application of the promise to itself, or on account of a sense of the grace of God in the heart, but for other causes. This definition is drawn from what Christ says in the explanation of the parable of the sower; "He that received the seed into the stony places, the same is he that heareth the word, and anon with joy receiveth it; yet hath he not root in himself, but endureth for a while, for when tribulation or persecution ariseth because of the word, by and by he is offended." (Matt. 13:20, 21.) The causes of this joy are in a manner infinite, and different in different individuals; yet they are all temporary, and when they fade, the faith that is built upon them, vanishes away. Hypocrites rejoice in hearing the gospel, either because it is new to them, or because it seems to calm their minds, whilst it delivers them from the burdens which men, by their traditions, have imposed upon them, as does the doctrine of christian liberty, justification, &c.; or, because they seek, under its profession, a cloak for their sins, and hope to reap rewards and advantages, both public and private, such as riches, honors, glory, &c., which shows itself when they are called to bear the cross; for then, because they have no root in themselves, they fall away. But hypocrites do not rejoice as true believers, from a sense of the grace of God, and from an application to themselves of the benefits offered in the divine word, which may be regarded as the cause of true and substantial joy in the faithful-the removal of which single cause is sufficient to make their faith temporary.

This temporary faith differs from historical only in the joy which accompanies it. Historical faith includes nothing more than mere knowledge; whilst this has joy connected with this knowledge; for these time-serving men "receive the word with joy." The devils believe, historically, and tremble, but they do not rejoice in the knowledge which they have; but rather wish it were extinguished; yea, they do not even profess themselves to be followers of this doctrine, although they know it to be true; but hate and oppose it most bitterly. In men, however, historical faith is sometimes joined with profession, and sometimes not; for men often, whatever may be the causes, profess that truth and religion which they hate. Many also who know the doctrine to be true, still oppose it.
Obj. But the devil has often professed Christ. Therefore he cannot be said to hate this doctrine. Ans. He did not, however, profess Christ from any desire of advancing and promoting his doctrine, but that he might mingle with it his own falsehoods, and thus cause it to be suspected. It is for this reason that Christ commands him to keep silent, as Paul also does in Acts 16:18.

The faith of miracles is a special gift of effecting some extraordinary work, or of foretelling some particular event by divine revelation. Or, it is a firm persuasion, produced by some divine revelation, or peculiar promise in regard to some future miraculous working, which the person desires to accomplish, and which he foretells. This faith cannot be drawn, simply, out of the general word of God, unless some special promise or revelation be connected with it. The Apostle speaks of this kind of faith, when he says, "If I had all faith so that I could remove mountains," &c. (1 Cor. 13:2.) This declaration may, however, be understood of all the diferent kinds of faith, except justifying, yet it is spoken with special reference to the faith of miracles.

That this is a distinct kind of faith, is proven:

1. From the declaration of Christ. "If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this mountain, Remove hence to yonder place, and it shall remove," &c. (Matt. 17:20.) Many holy men also have had strong faith, as Abraham, David, &c., and yet they did not remove mountains. Therefore, this species of faith is distinct from justifying faith, which all true christians possess.

2. Exorcists, as the sons of Sceva, (Acts 19:14,) have endeavored to cast out devils, when they had not the gift or power of accomplishing it, who were afterwards severely punished, when the evil spirit fell upon them, overcame and wounded them.

3. Simon Magus is said to have believed, and yet he was not able to work miracles; he, therefore, desired to purchase this gift.

4. The devil has a knowledge of what is historical, and yet he cannot work miracles; because no one, except the Creator, is able to change the nature of things.

5. Judas taught, and wrought miracles, as did the other Apostles; therefore, he had a historical faith, (perhaps also temporary,) and the faith of miracles; and yet he had not that faith which justifies; for Christ said of him, "he is a devil." (John 6:70.)

6. Many shall say unto Christ, "Lord, Lord, have we not in thy name cast out devils ?" to whom he will nevertheless reply, "I never knew you." (Matt. 7:22.)

7. Lastly, the other kinds of faith extend to all things which the word of God reveals, and requires us to believe. The faith of miracles, however, refers merely to certain works and extraordinary events. It is, therefore, a distinct kind of faith.

Justifying faith is properly that which is defined in the catechism; according to which definition, the general nature of saving faith consists in knowledge and an assured confidence; for there can be no faith in a doctrine that is wholly unknown. It is proper for us, therefore, to obtain a knowledge of that in which we are to believe, before we exercise faith; from which we may see the absurdity of the implicit faith of the Papists. The difference, or formal character of saving faith, is the confidence and application which every one makes to himself, of the free remission of sins by and for the sake of Christ. The property, or peculiar character of this faith, is trust and delight in God, on account of this great benefit. The efficient cause of justifying faith is the Holy Ghost. The instrumental cause is the gospel, in which the use of the sacraments is also comprehended. The subject of this faith is the will and heart of man.

Justifying or saving faith differs, therefore, from the other kinds of faith, because it alone is that assured confidence by which we apply unto ourselves the merit of Christ, which is done when we firmly believe that the righteousness of Christ is granted and imputed unto us, so that we are accounted just in the sight of God. Confidence is an exercise or motion of the will and heart, following something good-resting and rejoicing in it.

Justifying faith differs from historical, because it always includes that which is historical. Historical faith is not sufficient for our justification. The same thing may also be said of the other two kinds of faith. Justifying faith, again, differs from all other kinds of faith, in this, that it is by it alone that we obtain righteousness, and a title to the inheritance of the saints. For if, as the Apostle says, we are justified by faith, and faith is imputed for righteousness, and by faith is the inheritance, then this faith must be one of the four kinds of which we have spoken. But it is not historical faith; for then the devils would also be accounted just, and be heirs of the promise. Neither is it temporary faith; for Christ rejects this. Nor is it the faith of miracles; for in that case, Judas would also be an heir. Hence it is by justifying faith alone that we obtain righteousness, and an inheritance among the saints; which the Scriptures properly and simply call faith, and which is also peculiar to the elect.

No man, however, truly knows what justifying faith is, except he who believes, or possesses it; as he, who never saw or tasted honey, knows nothing of its quality or taste, although you may tell him many things of the sweetness of honey. But the man who truly believes, experience these things in himself, and is able, also, to explain them to others.

1. He believes that every thing which the Scriptures contain is true, and from God.

2. He feels himself constrained firmly to believe and embrace these things; for if we confess that they are true and from God, it is proper that we should assent to them.

3. He sees, embraces, and applies particularly, to himself, the promise of grace, or the free remission of sins, righteousness and eternal life, by and for the sake of Christ, as it is said: "He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life." (John 3:36.)

4. Having this confidence, he trusts and rejoices in the present grace of God, and from this he thus concludes in reference to future good: since God now loves me, and grants unto me such great blessings, he will also preserve me unto eternal life; because he is unchangeable, and his gifts are without repentance.

5. Joy arises in the heart, in view of such benefits, which joy is accompanied with a peace of conscience that passes all understanding.

6. Then he has a will and an earnest desire to obey all the commands of God, without a single exception, and is willing to endure patiently whatever God may send upon him. The man, therefore, who possesses a justifying faith, does that which is required of him, regardless of the opposition of the world, and the devil. He who truly believes, experiences all these things in himself; and he who experiences these things in himself, truly believes.